Posts Tagged 'propagation record'

Term-III, Week-8 (07th – 11th September)

Friday, 11th September: Firearm safety.

Firearm safety

Firearm safety









We are getting a chance to study the theory side of the firearms. It all are the safety side of using firearms. Wayne King is our instructor here. He was away to Europe and retuned couple of weeks before. Today he is with us to share his knowledge and experiences related to firearms. Firearms are used for pest control in the horticultural industry. A license from the Arms Officer is must for buying and using the firearm. They are lethal weapons and very careful while using. Mr. Wayne is a voluntary Instructor of New Zealand Mountain Safety Council. He has various endorsement in his license to handle different type of firearms. He explained all norms related to various firearms and demonstrated different type of firearms and how it works.

Seven basic rules are very important for while using firearms.

1 Treat every firearm as loaded
2 Always point firearms in a safe direction
3 Load Firearms only when ready to fire
4 Identify your target beyond all doubts
5 Check your firing zone
6 Store firearms and ammunition safely
7 Avoid alcohol or drugs when handling firearms.

 Firearm are different types and all these have various functioning  actions. Bolt action, lever action, pump action and semi automatic. Cartridges are also in different types. Short cartridge, centre fire cartridge, rimfire cartridge and rifled slugs – for using in shotguns. Pistols are designed for held and fired with one hand. It includes all the firearms less than 762 mm length. Old method firearms were worked by black powder and makes smokes and pollutions. All new firearms are smoke free and even silenced firearms are available on these days. Some new models have telescopic viewer better sight.  It was really enjoyable and lots of new information  about firearms achieved at the end of the day.

 Thursday, 10th September: Propagation – Nursery

Buxus semperviren

Buxus semperviren

A cloudy morning. I was sure that, it is because of the  low pressure coming from the west side of the country. No chance of rain. A mixture of stationary, warm and cold fronts here. There is a chance of little wind in the night. Tomorrow afternoon is going to be clear. Jo has made a list of things to do today and it was displayed in the board. Sowing tomatoes, red onions, leeks, Florence fennel and perennial rocket etc. She talked about various tomato verities and its market demand. We have a giant plant sale is coming soon. It is the time for sell of al the cuttings and seedling we prepared in the nursery. A huge selection of ornamental plants, garden verities, lavender, rosemary,  grasses etc. now we are preparing different verities of vegetable plants. Tomatoes, chillies, basils, red onions, corianders, broccolis etc.  Went around the GH-1, GH-4 and hydroponics.  Moved some seedling trays to the GH-4 for harden off. Some trays picked from GH-4 which are ready for potting up and pricking out. Today some of us pricked out Petunias and Salvias. Some people potted some more stone crops. I have chosen Broccoli ( Purple Sprouting Early), Chilli Pepper ( Hungarian yellow Wax) and Capsicum (Californian Wonder) for sowing. Used Standard potting mix and sand on 50:50 ratio on the hygiene tray and sowed them gently on various trays and covered with little layer of vermiculate and send them to GH-1 for germination. Chilli and capsicum seeds trays are covered with glass pans to protect them from over watering. Later on Some of us shifted number of pots  which plants grown well to the GH-2 . It was necessary to make more room in the GH-4. Much pots, punnets and trays are getting ready here with vearious verities. In the afternoon session, I have trimmed  some Lonicera nitida plants which are sprawling out of the pots. I made them bushy. Later on I trimmed some Mint bush to get them more bushy. Done the hair cut on two Buxus semperviren  plants. One is looking good in its pyramid shape. Some Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and other plants also got a chance to get trimmed by me. Later I decided to do some weeding and prepare the veggie garden. It is thee o clock and time to twist –up the day. Jo made a recap of the day – all the activities executed and Rebecca presented today’s plant profile followed by this. She chose one Iris family plant  for this. Great efforts.

Wednesday, 09th September: Tutorial

Another tutorial day after couple of weeks. Tutorial days are really helpful for completing  the pending tasks especially assignments. Alex was waiting for us to pen his diary. He started with  the price of a brand of Roundup herbicide. Polaris 450 glyphosate (Roundup) 20 litter container cost $ 189 (including GST). As he suggested that, if we are buying house in rural areas with agricultural land  will help to get lots of tax benefits from the government. All kind of fertilisers, herbicides and other agricultural products which we buy for this property will come under the category. GST paid for these products will be refunded periodically from the Tax dept. Even GST amount paid for buying house + property will be  refundable. I have an idea to buy a minimum five hector land with one small house in the rural area and do some works in that soil. After that he has approached everybody and confirmed their areas of interest where we are going to work on after study. It was a time for updating the assignments submission status. It was a reminder for us to complete all the assignments before this term. At the end of this term, another theory exam is coming and he described about the subjects of questions for this exam. Time to prepare for that. After that I moved to computer room for complete my Soil assignment. After completing the same, I started to work on the assignment for ‘Hand pruning grape vines’. Other assignments like Compost, weeds – including Weed management plan and Weed collection reports getting due.

Tuesday, 08th September: Propagation – theory

Lonicera nitida

Lonicera nitida

As per time table, today is the day for propagation – theory. Jo was leading us today for this. We have  propagation records which carry all the details of the propagation activities we conducted during this academic year. Various type of seedlings and cuttings we propagated through out this year. Some herbaceous, soft wood, semi hard wood and hardwood cuttings. Beside this we done many kind of seed sowing, seedling pricking and  potting. Different methods used for preparing, sowing, germinating and pricking out these seedlings. Many deciduous and evergreen cuttings. Divisions used for propagating peonies and Iris.. Scaling is the propagation method for lilies and other such verities.  It all are in mind and we need to record them in a systematic order in to the Propagation Record. Different growing media used for different propagation activities. Standard potting mix, seed sowing mix (50:50 of standard potting mix and sand), punnet mix and hydroponics mix used for all these. Used Rockwool in the hydroponics. Mist bed, heat bed, harden off  are various methods used for germination and pricking out. Stratification (provide an artificial cooler temperature for seeds to germinate fast – use chillier) and scarification (scratch the seeds in the sandpaper or rubbing agent and help them to germinate fast) are the different method used for some kind of seed germination. Seed sources like private garden, polytechnic campus or nurseries are also should be recorded in this book. A systematic work can help to achieve twenty credits easily. Some times we forgot to record the continuation of the works. Some cases somebody else carried out the following work in the nursery propagation room. We all went around GH-1, GH-2 and GH-4 to find out the yellow and white labels. Yellow labels have the name of the person carried the work and its date.  White labels have details of the plant. It is the only method to complete the records. We have carried some weeding in the GH-4 and moved to the hydroponics and spend some time make this floor clean and tidy. Some hospitality people from China are going to visit our campus and surroundings soon. Got little time to do some wedding in the peony garden also.

Afternoon session was a time to complete al the pending diary and assignments. I have worked with Soil assignments and completed almost all. Much satisfied outcome for this day.

Monday, 07th September: Compost



Another one more day to learn about and compost, its importance and making techniques. We gathered at Bannockburn campus. Roger started the topic with the definition of compost. It is a natural process of decay to change all organic wastes in to a valuable humus rich material. One compost heap is collection of great number of bugs having  a large time consuming a mountain of food. Micro-organisms like Bactria, fungi and other bugs need a suitable condition to do this process. The rate of composting is affected by nutrient balance, moisture level, temperature and aeration. Carbon nitrogen ratio is also important for compost process. 40:1 is the best suitable level of Carbon Nitrogen in the compost. But if the ratio is >30:1, it will make the compost process slow. If ration is < 25:1, excess nitrogen will be escaped to atmosphere as ammonia. Mineralization is the process of release of  Nitrogen  from the organic matter by decomposition. 60 % of moisture content is ideal for compost process. More or less will make compost process slow. Aeration control the compost process getting too hot. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the product of compost process reaction. Temeprature of the compost process can go up high as 65 C. Bacteria is the  smallest organisms in the compost process. Mainly three different kind of microbes work in the compost process. Thermophilic bacteria (hot bacteria >40C), mesophilic bacteria ( mid temperature bacteria between 0-40 C) and psychrophilic bacteria ( bacteria which works in lowest temperature level – between -20C and 13C) When the compost cools down, all the mesophilic  bacteria again re-colonise and predominate at the 0-40C temperature range. Fungi is the second most efficient decomposers in the  process. Actinomycetes, Centipedes, Millipedes and Springtails are also play important role in the compost making process. Different type of ready made compost bins are available in the market. We can make simple compost bins with out much efforts.  Unused pallets and wood peaces are useful for making compost bins. In the afternoon session some of went nearby sheep farm to collect sheep manure for compost process. We made a huge compost heap using all dried materials, saw dust, dried leafs, green materials and added sheep manure and activators. Watered them at last. We have used the temperature probe to check the heat level if the compost heap we made last week. It all was less that <15 C because of the coolest weather on the previous days. Hope that temperature will come up on coming days and compost process will get fast. 


Term-III, Week-7 (31st Aug – 04th September)

Friday, 04th September: Motorised Sprayers

One more practical day at Bannockburn campus. As usual Alex and Trevor were ready to help us. Alex started the class with spraying techniques. Calibration of the sprayer is an important part of the spraying process. All the chemicals we spray in the property should be in the recommended format. Excess application of chemical or herbicides can make negative impacts on the soil. If we are doing organic production,  wrong use of any restricted products can cause loosing the certification. Under usage of any chemical will not provide the desired effect. Recommended level of quantity and application rate is very important. As an example, required minimum quantity of the copper spray is 3.75 Kg @ hector. But it should be 190-250 gram @ 100 litter water. In this case, spray output per minute (V), width of the spray pattern (W) and speed of the sprayer (Tractor speed in kilometre @ hour)  are the important factors. Formula for finding the right figures  of Application Rate per Hector (ARPH) is  ARHct = 600 X V / W X S. Speed = 3.6 X Distance / time taken.  Simplest way of find the spray out per minute is Load full tank of water in the spray tank, run the nozzles exactly one minute and add water to the tank and measure the level of added water. That is the spray output per minute. Simple……. Alex and Trevor demonstrated the process to us in the outside. Meanwhile they have explained some more interesting details of the sprayer. After morning tea, some people leaded by Trevor to do the copper spraying for the peaches. Others went with Alex for pruning pears. It was really interesting and a new experience to do the pruning on pears trees. After that we pruned apple tress. Pruning apple trees continued till the end and later on the class room session Alex declared that everybody has successfully completed the practical assignment of pruning and training mature fruit trees.  Thank you for the support. A day with handful  experience. Great support from Alex and Trevor.

Thursday, 03rd September: Propagation – Nursery

Another propagation day. Frosty morning. Temperature was below minus two. Jo had a  friendly talk with everybody about the Oamaru trip. Everybody enjoyed that well. Great response. After that she presented the days programmes. Deck walk in Glass Houses. Look all the seedling and cuttings in the glass house and if anything is required to move for hardening or potting, removing the flowers from the hanging basket plants, thinning off of basil and coriander seedlings and potting of raspberry etc. We all went to Glass House and had a look around. Some of the ornamental grape vine cuttings were ready for potting and moved them to propagation room for further process. Later on went to the Glass House -4 and pricked out all the flowers from the hanging baskets plants. Continued some weeding around. Collect some seedling trays to the propagation room for pricking out. Thinned off basil and coriander seedlings. Kept only 5-7 basils / corianders in one pot and removed the rest. Some of them transplanted to new pots. Good root growth for these seedlings. Right time for transplantation. Chris and myself were busy with pricking out of Chives which are seeded by Gandhi. It was really a task to relocate these chives from hygiene tray to punnets. Some others pricked out some pansies and potted them in the punnets. Used punnet mix for all these punnets as growing media. In the afternoon session we went to Bannockburn campus and collected some autumn raspberries (autumn bliss) and potted nearly 110 of them. Some others worked in the hydroponics – adding some fertilisers and doing some cleanings . Before the end of the day we have done some preparation and weeding in the proposed veggie garden in front of the propagation room. Someone has supposed to present today’s plant profile presentation. Ironically he become absent and there was no presentation in this week. Busy with tiny activities and at the end of the day, it all got counted as a good experience.

Tuesday & Wednesday, 01st – 02nd  Sepetember: Field trip – Oamaru.


Oamaru (Click here for Video)

Yessssssssssss!!!! We are going to Oamaru…. We want to explore whole Waitaki valley (North Otago). As part of our study, we have to visit some places out of the campus to see and understand the horticulture and related industry. Our Alex and Jo were with us to help.  We all went in a bus driven by Alex. Our principal lecture is a multi skilled person and I really admire him. A good teacher, friend, son, father and husband for the family, highly skilled horticulturist and a good driver – Truck, bus, tractor and ATV. He cooks well and sometimes serves tea and coffee for us. What else we need???

We started the trip at 8:00 AM, Weather was looking little unattractive and I was worried about rain during the trip. When we reached at Lindis pass, it was  snowing lightly their. Get out of the bus and enjoyed the snow little and continued the tour. At Omarama we stopped for little refreshments. After  that the we moved towards Kurow. On the way we have seen the places like Otematata, Avemore dam and Waitaki dam. When we reached at Kurow village, it was around 11:30.  Kurow means the mountain of ‘many mists’. We went out see the Kurow Estate, a vineyard  and its  winery. Mr. Jiff  explained all about kurow  vines and  some other specialities. They have verity of vines like Riesling – GT, Pinot gris, Pinot blond and Rose-1. A good winery is just operational. It all was really interesting to see and understand all the knowledge, techniques and implementations.  Then we moved towards to Oregon Nursery. A ‘Small !!!!!!’  nursery produces millions of Pine (pinus radiata)  and Leyland cypress trees every year. Beside these , they have a wide verity of amenity, forestry, shelter and native plants developed from cuttings and seeds. They have a huge collection of stocks (bud wood) of Populus and willows. Some interesting facts like Growth factor, not using any fertilisers in the potting mix, use their own rooting hormone  and different hardened off methods like details were really new for me. This nursery spread around twenty hectors of land. One green house which covered more one hector has a full capacity of handling five million plants at the time. It is totally controlled by the computer system. We spend almost one hour in the nursery to see and understand all the process. A great experience. After that we moved toward to Headford propagators. It also an another average size nursery handle thousands of plants useful for gardening, landscaping, amenity and shelter purpose. It was really attractive that their systems to store seeds, making potting mix and potting up process. Spend almost one hour with them to move around and see their cuttings, seedlings, green house and stocks (bud woods). Then moved towards see penguins at Oamaru sea shore. It was nearly five o clock. We spend almost one hour at their to see blue  penguins. ironically  there was no penguin movements during that time and we went back to the town  and ended the day programmes at the hotel.

Place which is arranged for our night stay was excellent. Myself and Ghandi shared one room. Nice bedding and other facilities. After refreshments, we went out and had a look around in the town, had the dinner and came back to the place. I spend little time to check my email and update them. Later on I went to bed at around 10.30 and had a lovely sleep. Some people got a chance to see  penguins at the car park behind  the hotel. Wake up at 6.30 AM and got refreshed and then moved out for the breakfast.

Alex and Jo were waiting for us to continue the second day programmes. We headed to one cherry orchard who planted some amounts of Tart cherries. On the way  I got some leaflets  from Jo to read. Tart cherries are something special. They have great medicinal values.  Mr. John from Cherryvite was waiting for us. An enthusiastic entrepreneur. He is basically a dairy farmer. But he got interested with Tart cherries and went to US and Europe to find more about them. After the return he took some helps from Horticulture research station located at Clyde, Central Otago and started his venture. As part of his horticulture efforts , he has got awarded with Business excellence, Winner for emerging business from Westpac Otago Chamber of commerce. Tart cherries have medicinal values as a pain killer, sleeping pill, good for arthritis and even effects for preventing cancer like deadly diseases.  He supplied some samples of Tart cherry fruits, dried tart cherries and Packed (concentrated) cheery juice. While talking with him, I cam to know that, his entire family is very much interested in this business. Spending some golden hours with him, we continued our trip. On the way we visited Elephant rocks. It is a kind of lime stone shaped in various forms especially like Elephants by weathering. It a one of the attractive tourist location in South Island. Some film set was also visible in that place. On the way back to Cromwell, we enjoyed the beauty of the snow from lindis pass. All the Lindis pass meadows and mountains were covered with white blanket.  Around three O clock, we ended our two days tour programmes at Polytech campus. Thank you very much for Alex and Jo for their supports, service and care.  Really memorable and enjoyed a lot.

Monday, 31st August: Compost (Unit-21045)

No need to worry when you hear about compost. We  know the value of this black gold. It is an active part of a farmer – like me. We make compost at our place and use them for all the agricultural purpose. As part of my Horticultural study, toady  I started to learn the technical side of the compost. Composting is the method of speeding up the decomposition of organic materials. As per the basis of compost , nothing is a waste. By composting, recycling the organic matters, reduction of waste going to the lands, saving money, conserve water, adding humus to the soils, preventing pollution and fire and improves the soil organic properties. Humus is the stable part of soil organic matters remaining from the decomposition of plant and animal remains. It improves the cation exchange capacity. Humus has a large surface area  and better water holding capacity. Decomposition  (making compost) process are mainly in two types. One is  with the help of oxygen (aerobic) and mostly happen in the nature. Other process is fermentation – with out oxygen (anaerobic). Air, water and activators are important for compost making.

There was a half an hour video session about compost making has played before lunch. It was really useful one. Roger brought  one bucket (bokashi)  for making compost indoor. This system commonly used for making compost inside the house. Some of us brought some kitchen waste and we filled them in the bokashi bin and kept them for breaking down. In the afternoon session we went to nearby dumping area for preparing a compost plant. We used damaged wooden pallets for making the compost plant (aerobic method) It has four section and one section is separated for dried materials. We used green materials and dried materials in other three sections. Used some activators and saw dust while preparing the compost beds. Waiting for coming days to monitor the breaking down process. Good theory plus practical day. Hands on experience.