Posts Tagged 'Shelter Tree planting'

Term-II, Week-3 (11th-15th May)

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Monday, 11th May – Shelter………..

Winter – a cool guy, is standing in the door step……. to see her Girlfriend…. But her elder sister  Autumn is not ready to allow her sister to meet him……. Because this Autumn has no boyfriend yet and she is more beautiful than  the other. She is an amazing beauty. What a nice to see her…. Slim angel. I can not describe her colour….. is it yellow or pink, or (really I don’t know )…..I know only one thing that she is really awesome… I really love her….. her beauty……….. I think you to…………

A freeze Monday morning… there was no Sun on last two days and mercury was going down…… Everybody was wearing enough winter cloths and reached timely on the class.  Today’s topic (continuation of last class) was displayed on the Smart Board…………. “Establish and Maintain Shelter”.

Shelter Trees

Shelter Trees

Topic started with  Shelter belts tree species commonly used for Central Otago region.  They are mainly Alnus spp., Populus cultivars, Salix cultivars (Willows), Eucalyptus spp. and x Cupressocyparis leylandil.  Some other lower growing species like Pittosporum, Phormium and Cortaderia richardii (toi-toi). We have planted some  pots of toi-toi in the nursery a couple of days before… We call it as GOLs……

The main points of the day’s are like when to do shelter tree planting, how to do planting, how to protect these planted trees, how can we prepare the area for planting and how can we maintain these trees when they grow. We learned to choose the species of plants… Now the major task starts here….Spring and early autumn are generally the best season to plant shelter trees. Most people do some mistakes while digging the hole to plant these trees. Too small holes… A wide open deep hole is always suitable to plant these trees. Soaking  the container grown tress in a bucket of water before planting , will help to stop all air bubbles rising. Bare rooted plants should be planted as soon as possible. Otherwise it will be a major loss. All the planting process should be very careful and properly handled. Place the plant at the proper height in the hole, straighten them well and fill the hole gently but firmly. Water in the hole before planting and water after planted are good practices. Do not do over watering – it will cause oxygen deprivation- . Using super absorbent polymer crystals  will help a lot to maintain the moisture level. Mulching is an important  for maintain the moisture level and weed control. Applying fertilisers are optional and up to you. Don’t not over do these. Better to avoid pruning on these small plant except  any damage or structural deficiencies.  Always think twice before attempting to remove lower branches.  They are very important for trees to make needed food production and protection.  Always be cautious while doing the staking. Poor staking can cause major damages on trees. Sometime it may kill the tree (a merciful killing) Do not make them bondage… let them grow freely…..  Protect the trees from Rabbit, Hare and other wild animals.

Summary of planting…..

Chose a best species Dig a decent holeWatering well before and after the plantingControl the fertiliser – as needed- Mulch, if possibleStakingRabbit, animal and spray guardsDo necessary weed controlNecessary pruning and maintenance.

We all went for field visit in the afternoon. It was  a chance to see the shelter trees planted in different areas like Alexandra, Clyde, Cromwell and its surroundings. Most of the shelter belt tree species are Alnus spp., Populus cultivars are Salix cultivars (Willows).  Artificial shelter have found in some orchards. Deciduous and  Evergreen trees planted together in some places. Some other places planted with trees and shrubs together…

Sheter Belt

Sheter Belt

 
Shelter  belts

Shelter belts

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Tuesday, 12th May –  Pests, Diseases and disorders…….

Aphids

Aphids

Just because of the cold weather, we all were sure that it is very difficult to find pests or diseases. Wayne King was ready for  remove or quarantine all the pests and diseases on time. Because, Pests, diseases and disorders are his horticultural enemies and  he is always behind him… He calls them as “BAD GUYS”….

We had  a task to perform on  today morning… As decided  on last class, anyone from the three members group should present a summery of the last field visit. What kind of pests, diseases and disorders we have found during visit to Bannockburn campus and Jackson’s Orchard. He has distributed a list of 21 pests and diseases IDs most popular on horticulture industry. They are  Black Spot, Powdery Mildew, Frost Damage, Aphids, Codling Moth, Mealy Bug, Shield or Vegetable Bug, White Fly, Snail, Silver Leaf, Bitter Pit, Scale, Phytophthora, Botrytis, Brown Rot, Shot Hole, Bacterial Blast, Grape Leaf Roll Virus, Verticillium Wilt, Erinose Mite and Leaf Looper Caterpiller.

Ladybirds

Ladybirds

Praying Mantis

Praying Mantis

He continued the topic from Flies. Bulb flies and carrot rust flies are common. Hygiene is the most important factor in the orchards to control all these bad guys. In major cases, with a very cautious, Diazinon can be used. There is another small pest called Springtails are also common in orchards. We all are familiar with Earwigs. This is a chewing pest which can do considerable damage to flower structure and some seedlings. Also a passenger pest with exports. Sap sucking pest are very common in the industry. Some of these verities get reproduced with in three days and spread all over very fast. They are very harmful and need lots of efforts to control them. While doing monitoring all these, we need to dedicate our time  for better results. Road side, Wind direction, Dusty area, Sunlight, Moisture, thick canopy and weeds are major considerable points.

Scale

Scale

Aphids are also sapsucking pests. They are very common destructive pests. Breed very quickly,

Mealy bug

Mealy bug

when they get plenty of food. Their next generation can be every week. They have very highly eveolved life cycle. Aphids have two dispersal during a year. (Spring and Autumn)Wingless Adults are parthenogenetic and they can produce males and therefore eggs in unfavourable period.  Control measures such as Parasitic Wasps, predators like Lacewings, Ladybirds and Praying Mantis are important. Keeping an ecological balance will help to prevent these pests.

Environmentally  friendly insecticides are very useful and help us maintain these ecological/ biological balances.  Use of natural Pyrethrum, Neem Oil and Garlic are common and affordable.  We have to be very careful while using chemical controls against these Aphids. Marvik or other such chemical will kill all good guys also. Aphicides can  be useful for Aphids attack.  Phylloxera is also a sapsucking

Thrips

Thrips

pest. It lives in soils. It can cause severe root damages in grapevines. Useful control methods like Cultural methods, frequent irrigation, weed control, hygiene, insecticides and plant resistances are very important. Chemical control is cost bounded and give limited success. Enzone, a new soil fumigant is little effective.

May thrips are common in horticulture industry. Clover thrips, Gladiolus thrips, Western flower trips and New Zealand Flower thrips are popular in these. They lay eggs under the surface of leaves and skin of the fruit. Thrips are very small in size. They can be transported through wind also. Oil sprays will be a effective control method.  Yellow Plate / stick board method are useful for monitor all these thrips.

Whitefly

Whitefly

Mealy Bug – another sapsucking pest common in some parts of New Zealand. Wash off like using more water  with chemicals are a successful control method. At least 3000 litter @ hector spray will help to control the mealy bug. Cultural methods, biological controls and predators are  also successful control measures. Scale is an another sapsucking pest. San jose and oyster shell scale are most common in New Zealand horticulture industry. Use of similar control measures for mealy bug is effective.

Shield bugs or vegetable bugs are also common in the New Zealand Horticulture Industry. Whitefly is also an another major  pests. They are very difficult to control with insecticides. Natural predatory wasps are one of the best control method. Whitefly is very common in Glass Houses. Another small scale like pests which limbed in to leaves, causing a blister like appearance is called Psillids. They are very common on Pittosporum. Wasps and bees are also should be monitored and controlled.  

Twospotted Mite

Twospotted Mite

Mites – they are not insects. Very small, eight legs, needle like mouth part and one visible

Nematodes

Nematodes

body part. They don’t have antenna or wings. Mites are sapsuckers. Spider mites are most common in horticulture industry. Two spotted mite, European red mite and clover mite are generally found. Integrated Mite Control (IMC) has been developed for control of mites. Nematodes are another common pest in the industry. Root knot nematodes produce small galls on the roots. Leaf nematodes cause distortion and deep patches on the leaves. They can transmit viruses.

After the first smoko, we have presented our field visit findings in its brief. During afternoon classes, some people were feeling little sleepy with pests and diseases.  Overall it was a great bundle of knowledge about pests and diseases in the horticulture industry.

Wednesday, 13th May – Tutorial

Sun was tired and  sleeping in the morning.  We cannot sleep late morning, because as a Horticulture student we have to study a lot. Wednesday is the only day to get little relax from the side effects of pest and disease control. Jo greeted everybody as usual.

We all were working with unit 1670, plants – collection, filling up data on the specimen sheets. Most of them were in the computer library to search and collect data. Few were working in the liabriary. Some others went to field to collect more samples. Some others were working with their Weblog (Blog). It was noticeable that most of us forgot to going for smoko. Some of us really achived the skill of searching data on the internet.

At computer lab, there were some serious problem in the Novell server. It was going on from last couple of weeks and become serious today. All the computers were unusually slow hanged it some times.  Many times it required the restarting. Some of us were really felling sleepy. Later on  we got some little relief from this major problem by the help of IT people.

Sun wake up at 11.00 AM. We all have completed a great part of the specimen data at the end of the day. There is only one more week to submit this assignment.

Thursday, 14th May – Nursery + Propagation

Peonies

Peonies

Sun was shy in the morning because he has waken up late on yesterday. We reached to poly two minutes before. There was a some pending tasks waiting for us. Working with Peonies. Jo has given a brief  introduction  of these lovely peonies. They are popular for the gardeners in Canterbury and Central Otago. These peonies do flowering  spring ( September –October). We have carefully lifted  some peonies with the help of Forks. Washed off all the soil and weeds. Dressed them properly  to clear all damages and disease affected portions. These peonies need good sunlight. We found disease on some plants which are growing on the shady area Divided them in to  small sizes and  replanted carefully in 6 ltr pots and filled with potting mix(eyes 2-3 centimetre under surface)  and firmed well.  Send them to Glass House -4 for growing. Peonies always need full Sunlight.

After the smoko, we have  done some weeding off in the Peonies division and help them to grow well.

Some facts about Peonies:-

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Lifted them for Replanting

Peonies are hardy flowering plants that need little care and live through severe winters. After becoming established in a garden, Peonies bloom each spring for many years. Peonies are also extensively grown as ornamental plants for their very large, often scented cut flowers. Peonies have been cultivated in China for more than 2,000 years, not only for the beautiful flowers but for also for the roots, which were used for food and medicine. The herbaceous Peonies have been cultivated in home gardens for over 600 years. Clumps of Peonies may survive for as long as 50 years, and they are reasonably free from maintenance problems.  Since ancient times, Peonies have been regarded as the symbol of wealth, luck and happiness. Peonies always represent elegance and poise.  The Roman legions first brought Peonies to England in about year 1200. Peonies were described in botanical books as early as

Ben dividing them

Ben -Action + Cut

1636. Peonies (along with the Plum Blossoms) are the traditional floral symbols of China, where it is called Mudan. In 1903, the Qing Dynasty declared the Peony as the national flower of China. If grown in the sun, leaves of Peonies turn from green to burgundy in just one week. Planted among fall-flowering perennials such as Echinacea purpurea (the purple cone flower) and Eupatorum purpureum, Peonies come into their own color once again! The Japanese name for the Peony, Ebisugusuri means medicine from China. In traditional folk medicine, Peony root was used as a treatment for menstrual cramps, asthma and convulsions. Peonies’ exquisite, large blossoms, often fragrant, make excellent cut flowers and the foliage provides a background for annuals or other perennials.

 

Eyes - Ready to grow

Eyes - Ready to grow

After the lunch we worked with Nursery. Myself was engaged with making a cubit meter standard potting mix. Others re-potted some plants like Kowai and Pittosporum. Earlier they were in small pots and we planted them on 6 ltr pots for better growth. While replanting them, always make sure that scooped top with 1 c.m of potting mix. Weeds off them before planting in to new pots. We re-poted some ‘Bearded Irises’. Weeded off and cleared old leaves of them before replanted.

 

 

 

 

Friday, 15th May – Maintain Hand Tools & Service Small Engines

 

Engine works

Engine works

Welcome to Bannokburn Campus. We are here on Friday. Looking ahead a favourable weather for this day. We have to do lot of outdoor activities today. “Checking and Servicing Small Engines” displayed in the Smart Board. Trevor was waiting for us to start his crazy driving…. He introduced us the small engines. Some of them were familiar to us. Hedge trimmers, Motomowers, Line trimmers, Chainsaws, Motorised Sprayers,  Generators, Small Pumps and other small machines.  Most of these machines require servicing and maintenance with some specific requirements.

There are some major difference between 2 stroke and 4 stroke motors which  needed to be identified and considered  in maintenance. But, most small engines are fairly similar their maintenance requirements. Most of these mall engines like Chainsaws and Line trimmers having Two stroke engines.  He has explained well about the difference between two stroke engines and four stroke engines. The biggest difference between these two engine types are The spark plug fires ones every revolution  in a two stroke engine. Fuel and air in the cylinder have been compressed and when the spark plug fires the mixture ignites. In the two stroke engines, on the other hand, the crankcase is serving a pressurisation chamber to force air + fuel in to the cylinder. So it cannot hold a thick oil. We should mix oil in with petrol(fuel) to lubricate the crankshaft, connecting road and cylinder walls. If you forget to mix in the oil, the engine will not going last very long. Two stroke engines are powerful and can work with any conditions. But they are very poor in fuel efficiency  and emission will cause lot of pollution.

4-Stroke Engines

4-Stroke Engines

 We all are familiar with four stroke engines. They are very common in cars, trucks and two-stroke-engineother vehicles including generators. They are relatively efficient, inexpensive and easy to refuel. They works in four stroke such as Intake stroke, Compression Stroke, Combustion Stroke and Exhaust Stroke. Less formally, the four strokes are sometimes called “Suck”, “Squeeze”, “Bang”, “Puff”. The Combustion chamber is the area where compression and combustion take place. As the piston moves up and down, you can see the size of the combustion chamber changes. It has some maximum  and minimum volume. The difference between the maximum and minimum is called the displacement and is measured in litters or Cubic Centimetres (CC), where 1000 cubic centimetres equals a litre. This is the technical side of measuring the engine capacity in CC.

Some problems  like bad fuel mix, lack of compression, lack of spark, dead battery and such issues  can make these engines stop working. Always check the manufactures recommendations  for most of the technical corrections. Oil: fuel ratio, Oil and fuel levels, Air filters, spark plug and cooling system etc are important.   Diesel engines intake a mixture of diesel and air and compress it and ignites the mixture with spark. The heat of the compressed air lights the fuel. Note that the diesel engine has no spark plug. Pump is and important part for all diesel engines. Fuel Pump injects this mixture of fuel and air to the chamber. This allows diesel engines to start no matter if it is dry or rainy and wet.

Small Engine

Small Engine

 

We have got enough time to play with all small engines. It was great day for some people to understand and identify some important parts of the engines. Open and cleaned the spark plug, oil filters and air filters. Check and correct the oil and fuel levels. Dismantled one old engine and displayed it for demo. All of us got a chance to see the technical side of an engine – how the piston comes up in the cylinder, how exhaust works etc.

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